Giacchina marrone a punto foglie

Taglie: 40/42 (46/48)

Occorrente: filato cotone, o viscosa www.companyofcashmere.com: gr. 450 (550) col. marrone n. 33. Uncinetto PRYM n. 6,00. 4 bottoni di cm. 3 di diametro.

Punto foglie: n. delle m. divisibile per 14 + 1 + 3 cat. per volt. Lav. seg. il diagramma. Iniziare ogni r. con 3/5 cat. che sostituiscono il 1° p. alto/p. alto triplo. Iniziare con le m. che precedono il rapp., rip. sempre il rapp., terminare con le m. che seguono il rapp. Lav. 1 volta dalla 1 a alla 6a r., poi rip. sempre dalla 3a alla 6a r. N.B.: in ogni 3a e 5a r. del punto lav. i p. alti nelle cat. della r. prec. Per maggior chiarezza nel testo è indicato il n. dei p. alti di ogni 3a e 5a r. del punto.

Punto alto: iniziare ogni r. con 3 cat. che sostituiscono il 1° p. alto e terminare ogni r. con 1 p. alto nell’ultima delle cat. d’inizio r.

Campioni: cm. 10×10 a p. foglie = 15 m./p. alti e 5,5 r.; a p. alto: 7 r. = cm. 10
N.B.: lav. la giacchina in un pezzo unico fino agli scalfi manica. Poi terminare i davanti e il dietro separatamente. Lav. le maniche direttamente sugli scalfi manica, dall’alto verso il basso. Lav. la baschina a fine lavoro. Le frecce nello schemino indicano la direzione del lavoro.

Dietro e davanti: avv. 127 (155) cat. + 3 cat. per volt. e lav. a p. foglie = 8(10) rapp. + m. d’inizio e di fine r. A cm. 22 (25,5) =12 (14) r. di alt. tot., per gli scalfi manica, pros. per il davanti destro solo sulla m. d’inizio r. + i 2(21/2) rapp. seg. aumentando 1 p. alto come m. di fine r. = m. d’inizio r. + 2(21/2) rapp. + 1 m. di fine c= 36 (43) p. alti. A cm. 34,5 (41,5) = 19 (23) r. di alt. tot., per lo scollo, lasciare in sospeso 14 p. alti nella r. di ritorno seg. (= m. d’inizio r. + 1/2 rapp.) = 1 1/2 (2) rapp. + m. di fine r. = 22 (29) p. alti per la spalla. A cm. 42 (49) = 23 (27) r. di alt. tot., per il margine di rifinitura, lav. ancora 1 r. a p. alto. A cm. 43,5 (50,5) = 24 (28) r. di alt. tot., spezzare e fermare il filo.

Per il davanti sinistro iniziare con 1 r. di andata sugli ultimi 2 (2 1/2) rapp. + m. di fine r. e lav. in modo simmetrico. All’inizio del 7° rapp. (al centro dell’8° rapp.) agganciare il filo a nuovo e lav. 3 cat. che sostituiscono il 1° p. alto, non aum. p. alti = 2 (2 1/2) rapp. + m. di fine r. = 36 (43) p. alti.

Per il dietro pros. come richiede il punto sui 4(41/2 ai lati) rapp. Nella 1 a r. aum. 1 p. alto di fine r. per la simmetria = 4(41/2i) + 1 m. di fine c= 57 (71) p. alti. Lav. il margine di rifinitura come per i davanti. Alla stessa altezza dei davanti, spezzare e fermare il filo. l 13 p. alti centrali formano lo scollo.

Maniche: chiudere le spalle. Lav. a p. foglia. Nella 1 a r. lav. 3 cat. per volt. + 56 (70) p. alti = 3(4) rapp. + m. d’inizio e di fine r. = 57 (71) p. alti. N.B.: il p. foglia si tende leggermente all’inizio, si restringerà mano a mano che si procede in altezza (v. diagonale nello schemino). A cm. 23,5 = 13 r. di alt. tot., spezzare e fermare il filo.

Baschina: lav. sul margine inferiore a p. alto come segue: *22 (26) p. alti, 1 cat., 1 p. alto sul p. alto seg. e 1 cat. (= 3 m. = punto di aum.)*, rip. 1 volta da * a *, 35 (47) p. alti, **1 cat. + 1 p. alto + 1 cat., 22 (26) p. alti**, rip. 1 volta da ** a ** = 127 (155) p. alti + 2 cat. in ogni punto di aum. Per l’ampiezza lav. gli aum. in ogni r. dei 4 punti di aum. 9(10) volte come segue: 1 p. alto intorno alle cat. della r. prec., 1 cat., 1 p. alto sul p. alto della r. prec., 1 cat., 1 p. alto intorno alle cat. della r. prec. = in ogni r. vengono aumentati 8 p. alti = 199 (235) p. alti + 2 cat. in ogni punto di aum. A cm. 14,5 (15,5) = 10 (11) r. di alt. tot., spezzare e fermare il filo.

Confezione: chiudere i sottomanica. Rifinire i lati stretti della baschina e il margine dei davanti e dello scollo con cm. 3 = 2 r. a p. alto. Negli angoli in alto davanti lav. nella 1 a r. 3 p. alti nel p. alto d’angolo e nella 2a r. 3 p. alti nel p. alto d’angolo al centro della r. prec. Sul davanti destro lav. 4 asole come segue: agganciarsi a cm. 17 dal margine inferiore, *7 cat., salt. cm. 3 del margine, 5 p. bassi*, rip. ancora 2 volte da * a *, 7 cat., salt. cm. 3 del margine, riagganciarsi con 1 mezzo p. basso. Attaccare i bottoni.

 

www.companyofcashmere.com

 

 

 

 

 

 



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Yarn Shopping

Hi, my name is Federico Scatizzi, owner of the web site www.companyofcashmere.com.
In this audio recording I am glad to briefly present you our pure cashmere yarns, and I would like to show you the way to purchase them.

On our web page you can find pure cashmere yarns for hand knitting and to machine. These yarns are produced by some of the finest yarn specialized companies, such as Filati Biagioli Modesto, Cariaggi, LoroPiana, Filatura Papi, Natural Fantasy and many others.

We are traders, we are not manufacturers, our yarns come from stock made with companies specialized in cashmere processing. We buy small lots of yarn at very affordable prices and we can sell directly to the public or private wholesale, at prices up to a quarter of the normal price you would find in other stores. All our yarns are new, they are not remanufactured.

You may be wondering how all this is possible. I’ll try to explain it in a nutshell.

The producer of cashmere knitwear or clothing, usually buy in large quantities directly from manufacturers.
The yarn in excess inventories, generated by these companies once they finish setting up their own collection and production of clothing,  is sold at prices far below cost prices, in fact at  stock prices. This allows us to buy these stocks and put them back for sale to our customers in small quantities at a very exceptional price.

This means that every article and color of yarn is available on our website in very small amounts, sometimes less than a pound, and it is difficult to find the same article once it is finished.
For this reason we don’t provide color charts or samples, as it may happen that when you get the color cards or sample of that particular article of yarn, maybe the same article has already been sold.

The knitting yarns are divided into yarn in balls and yarn packages.
The yarns in balls have already been treated with water, that have already been washed, and can be directly processed. The balls are 50 grams and the price varies according to the article and the thickness of the yarn.

To view the catalog of yarns in balls for knitting, click on the corresponding category.

Knitting yarns on cones have not been treated with water. Nevertheless, it can work the grill directly. My advice is to wash the garment (vest, cardigan, scarf, and so on) when you’re done to achieve it. Garments made with these yarns may have a narrowing of one or two percent after the first wash. If you want advice on how to wash cashmere garments, please visit our blog, following the link at the end of every page on our website.

To view the catalog of hand-knitting yarns in cones, click knitting yarn in cones.

The machine yarns have mainly a value of 2/28000, to be processed on the machine at thinness 12 if they have one end, or thinness 7 if they have two ends, depending on the type of your machine. Sometimes you can find different thinness as well.

To view the catalog of yarns to work with the machine, click on yarn by machine.
Then clicking on the title, you will find all the data: fineness, colors, available quantity, price, and so on.

Money-back guarantee.
The guarantee covers the goods as described and does not cover damage caused during transport which is not directly assignable. The right to withdraw from the contract is guaranteed providing it is exercised within 10 days from receipt of the goods and on condition that the goods be returned (transport costs at your expense), after which time, the contract will be considered favourably and definitely concluded. Any costs and expenses borne will be withheld and the balance reimbursed to the purchaser. Should the goods not conform to the description, precise details of the defect or error must be notified within 2 days from receipt of the goods to be able to obtain a total reimbursement, without expenses or charges, and on condition that the goods be duly returned. It is obligatory to contact the vendor prior to sending back the goods. If (at any moment) you decide that you’re not satisfied with our products , please send an e-mail to info@companyofcashmere.com explaining the reason of your claim, and your intention to obtain the complete reimboursement.

How to make a purchase.
It’s very easy to buy in our website. We have chosen a particular kind of e-commerce software, that makes your purchase extremely simple. It offer a clear procedure that leads you through the steps of your purchase. You will see how it will be simple to buy a product at “Company of Cashmere”.
Once you have found your product, let’s insert the    quantity, and where required, select the color (using the table in the model page), then click on Add to Cart button. After that, you will see a wizard that will lead you through some steps to follow in order to complete your order.
Please, be sure that your address is exact and complete, ready for shipment.

How to make a payment
You can pay using your credit card, or by bank wire. We suggest to use credit card, as it is more comfortable, faster and it protects your purchase.

Credit Card payments
We have chosen Paypal to manage online payments. In this way you are protected by the most secure and famous payment method in the world.
You are not requested to have a Paypal account (but you can get one if you wish), you can pay using your credit card (VISA, Mastercard and American Express) or using a prepaid credit card.

Payment by Bank Wire

You can choose also the “Bank Wire” payment method. You can choose it when you checkout, you have to insert your personal informations, including your shipping address and your telephone number (for further communications if necessary) . After confirming your order, you will receive the bank info by e-mail. Once you have completed the bank wire payment, please advise us by e-mail at buy@companyofcashmere.com adding the CRO number of bank wire payment, and if possible, include a scanned copy of the payment (bank receipt).

For further payment methods, please contact us prior to order, at buy@companyofcashmere.com.

Shipment
We ship your order once we receive the payment, by Poste Italiane (Italian mail service) or TNT Express Courier.
Shipping To European Community countries
Deliveries to EU countries are made by TNT Global Express, and the delivery will be made within 2-3 business days. Deliveries to EU countries do not have additional costs or customs fees.

Shipping non-EU countries
Shipments are made by the Italian Mail “Poste Italiane” or TNT Express Courier; please read carefully the shipping terms below.

Shipping with Italian Mail “Poste Italiane” Shipments made by Poste Italiane are exempt from customs fees and charges, and are carried out under the following conditions:
– Shipments by air (air mail) are delivered in approximately 7-10 business days from date of shipment.
– Ground Shipments (Standard Shipping) are delivered in 20 working days from date of shipment

Shipments made by TNT Global Express are delivered in a maximum of 5 working days from date of shipment, but requiring the payment of customs fees and charges.
Unfortunately, most countries do not make public their customs charges, and we can not calculate the costs that you incur if you choose this type of shipment.
Customs charges have different costs depending on the country of destination, usually is around 4-7% of the total cost of the goods (this percentage is not defined and may vary according to customs laws of the destination country).

You can calculate shipping costs prior to checkout. Go to your shopping cart after having entered the product of your choice, enter a zip code and / or select your country of residence in the table “Estimate Shipping and Tax” and click on “Get a Quote”, select the shipping method preferences and proceed to checkout.

Refund and Reimbursement
In case of refund, you have to send back the products (at your load, we’ll call this). With the refund, contract shall be considered favorably and finally concluded by deducting any costs and expenses incurred.
If instead we simply send the wrong item, please contact us within 2 days after receiving the package, writing at customer@companyofcashmere.com clearly showing the defect and/or the error, you are entitled to full reimbursement, without any charges after return of the sent item.
It is required to contact the seller before you return the goods.

www.companyofcashmere.com



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Italian Cashmere Yarn

Hi,

my name is Federico Scatizzi, owner of the web site www.florencecashmereyarn.com

I am glad to briefly present you our pure cashmere yarns, and I would like to show you the way to purchase them.
On our web page you can find pure cashmere yarns for hand knitting and to machine. These yarns are produced by some of the finest yarn specialized companies, such as Filati Biagioli Modesto, Cariaggi, LoroPiana, Filatura Papi, Natural Fantasy and many others italian spinnings.

We are traders, we are not manufacturers, our yarns come from stock made with companies specialized in cashmere processing. We buy small lots of yarn at very affordable prices and we can sell directly to the public or private wholesale, at prices up to a quarter of the normal price you would find in other stores. All our yarns are new, they are not remanufactured.

You may be wondering how all this is possible. I’ll try to explain it in a nutshell.

The producer of cashmere knitwear or clothing, usually buy in large quantities directly from manufacturers.
The yarn in excess inventories, generated by these companies once they finish setting up their own collection and production of clothing,  is sold at prices far below cost prices, in fact at  stock prices. This allows us to buy these stocks and put them back for sale to our customers in small quantities at a very exceptional price.

This means that every article and color of yarn is available on our website in very small amounts, sometimes less than a pound, and it is difficult to find the same article once it is finished.
For this reason we don’t provide color charts or samples, as it may happen that when you get the color cards or sample of that particular article of yarn, maybe the same article has already been sold.

The knitting yarns are divided into yarn in balls and yarn packages.
The yarns in balls have already been treated with water, that have already been washed, and can be directly processed. The balls are 50 grams and the price varies according to the article and the thickness of the yarn.

To view the catalog of yarns in balls for knitting, click on the corresponding category.

Knitting yarns on cones have not been treated with water. Nevertheless, it can work the grill directly. My advice is to wash the garment (vest, cardigan, scarf, and so on) when you’re done to achieve it. Garments made with these yarns may have a narrowing of one or two percent after the first wash. If you want advice on how to wash cashmere garments, please visit our blog, following the link at the end of every page on our website.

To view the catalog of hand-knitting yarns in roche, click knitting yarn on cones

The machine yarns have mainly a value of 2/28000, to be processed on the machine at thinness 12 if they have one end, or thinness 7 if they have two ends, depending on the type of your machine. Sometimes you can find different thinness as well.

To view the catalog of yarns to work with the machine, click on yarn by machine.
Then clicking on the title, you will find all the data: fineness, colors, available quantity, price, and so on.

Money-back guarantee.
The guarantee covers the goods as described and does not cover damage caused during transport which is not directly assignable. The right to withdraw from the contract is guaranteed providing it is exercised within 10 days from receipt of the goods and on condition that the goods be returned (transport costs at your expense), after which time, the contract will be considered favourably and definitely concluded. Any costs and expenses borne will be withheld and the balance reimbursed to the purchaser. Should the goods not conform to the description, precise details of the defect or error must be notified within 2 days from receipt of the goods to be able to obtain a total reimbursement, without expenses or charges, and on condition that the goods be duly returned. It is obligatory to contact the vendor prior to sending back the goods. If (at any moment) you decide that you’re not satisfied with our products , please send an e-mail to info@companyofcashmere.com explaining the reason of your claim, and your intention to obtain the complete reimboursement.

How to make a purchase.
It’s very easy to buy in our website. We have chosen a particular kind of e-commerce software, that makes your purchase extremely simple. It offer a clear procedure that leads you through the steps of your purchase. You will see how it will be simple to buy a product at “Company of Cashmere”.
Once you have found your product, let’s insert the    quantity, and where required, select the color (using the table in the model page), then click on Add to Cart button. After that, you will see a wizard that will lead you through some steps to follow in order to complete your order.
Please, be sure that your address is exact and complete, ready for shipment.

How to make a payment
You can pay using your credit card, or by bank wire. We suggest to use credit card, as it is more comfortable, faster and it protects your purchase.

Credit Card payments
We have chosen Paypal to manage online payments. In this way you are protected by the most secure and famous payment method in the world.
You are not requested to have a Paypal account (but you can get one if you wish), you can pay using your credit card (VISA, Mastercard and American Express) or using a prepaid credit card.

Payment by Bank Wire
You can choose also the “Bank Wire” payment method. You can choose it when you checkout, you have to insert your personal informations, including your shipping address and your telephone number (for further communications if necessary) . After confirming your order, you will receive the bank info by e-mail. Once you have completed the bank wire payment, please advise us by e-mail at buy@companyofcashmere.com adding the CRO number of bank wire payment, and if possible, include a scanned copy of the payment (bank receipt).

Shipment
We ship your order once we receive the payment, by Poste Italiane (Italian mail service) or TNT Express Courier.

Shipping To European Community countries
Deliveries to EU countries are made by TNT Global Express, and the delivery will be made within 2-3 business days. Deliveries to EU countries do not have additional costs or customs fees.

Shipping non-EU countries
Shipments are made by the Italian Mail “Poste Italiane” or TNT Express Courier; please read carefully the shipping terms below.

Shipping with Italian Mail “Poste Italiane” Shipments made by Poste Italiane are exempt from customs fees and charges, and are carried out under the following conditions:
– Shipments by air (air mail) are delivered in approximately 7-10 business days from date of shipment.
– Ground Shipments (Standard Shipping) are delivered in 20 working days from date of shipment
Shipments made by TNT Global Express are delivered in a maximum of 5 working days from date of shipment, but requiring the payment of customs fees and charges.
Unfortunately, most countries do not make public their customs charges, and we can not calculate the costs that you incur if you choose this type of shipment.
Customs charges have different costs depending on the country of destination, usually is around 4-7% of the total cost of the goods (this percentage is not defined and may vary according to customs laws of the destination country).
You can calculate shipping costs prior to checkout. Go to your shopping cart after having entered the product of your choice, enter a zip code and / or select your country of residence in the table “Estimate Shipping and Tax” and click on “Get a Quote”, select the shipping method preferences and proceed to checkout.

Refund and Reimbursement
In case of refund, you have to send back the products (at your load, we’ll call this). With the refund, contract shall be considered favorably and finally concluded by deducting any costs and expenses incurred.
If instead we simply send the wrong item, please contact us within 2 days after receiving the package, writing at customer@companyofcashmere.com clearly showing the defect and/or the error, you are entitled to full reimbursement, without any charges after return of the sent item.
It is required to contact the seller before you return the goods

How to register and to modify your personal informations
This site allows you to sign up, with several advantages. In this way you will enter your information – not the credit card number, of course – only the first time, and for further purchases, the site will remember them and will propose them to you. You can also easily see the history of your purchases on this site.
Registering it is very simple: just click on the Account link located on the top right, in every page, below the search box. Obviously, you can change your registered information at any time from your account.

www.florencecashmereyarn.com



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Canotta in Cashmere

Facile

OCCORRENTE (per una taglia 42):
Primo filato: 125 gr. di filato rosa 613 (o altro colore a piacere);
Secondo filato: 150 gr. di filato rosa 30 (o altro colore a piacere) – di cui 130 gr. per la canotta e 20 gr. per la pochette;
Ferri n. 5;
Ago da lana con punta arrotondata;
Una manciata di perle piccole;
Una chiusura lampo lunga cm. 16;
Una farfallina metallica decorativa;
Un pezzettino di fodera in tinta.

PUNTI IMPIEGATI
Con i ferri:
Legaccio.
Maglia rasata.

Con l’ago:
Punto erba.
Punto margherita.
Punto pieno.

CAMPIONE
Cm. 10×10 lavorati con i ferri n. 5 e con i due filati usati insieme a maglia rasata sono pari a 16 m. e 19 ferri.

ESECUZIONE
Canotta – dietro: avv. 70 m. con i ferri n.5 e con i filati usati. Lav. 4 ferri a legaccio, pari a cm. 1,5 di alt. Pros. a m.rasata. A cm.37 di alt.tot., per gli scalfi intrecc. ai lati 4 m., poi, all’interno delle 2 m. di margine che si lavorano a legaccio, dim. 1 m. ogni 2 ferri per 6 volte (=50 m.). Per dim. 1 m. all’inizio del ferro lav. 1 acc. sempl. (pass. 1 m. a dir., alla fine del ferro lav.1 acc. sempl. (pass. 1 m. a dir. senza lavorarla, 1 m. dir., acc. la m. passata su quella lavorata a dir.). A cm. 56 di alt. tot., lav. le prime e le ultime 11 m. a m.rasata, le 28 m. centrali a legaccio per 4 ferri. A cm. 58 di alt.tot., intrecc. tutte le m.
Canotta – davanti: si lavora come il dietro. A cm. 40 di alt.tot., per lo scollo dividere il lavoro e pros. le due parti separat. All’interno delle 2 m. di margine dello scollo, che si lavorano a legaccio, dim. 1 m. ogni 2 ferri per 12 volte, 1 m. ogni 4 ferri per 2 volte. A cm. 58 di alt.tot. intrecc. le 11 m. rimaste per ciascuna spalla.
Pochette: avv. 24 m. con i ferri n. 5 e con il primo filato, messo doppio. Lav. 4 ferri a legaccio. Pros. a m.rasata. A cm. 26 di alt.tot., lav. 4 ferri a legaccio e intrecc. le m.

CONFEZIONE
Canotta: cucire le spalle e i fianchi. Con l’unc. e con il primo filato, rifinire lo scollo e gli scalfi con un giro a punto gambero. Con l’ago e con il primo filato, messo doppio, eseguire il ricamo come da disegno 1, lavorando gli steli a punto erba, le foglie e i petali a punto margherita, il pistillo a punto pieno ma con il secondo filato. Decorare il pistillo , la punta di otni foglia e gli steli con le perline.
Pochette: piegare il rettangolo a metà e, su uno dei lati (il dav. della pochette) ricamare lo stelo come da disegno 2, con il secondo filato messo doppio. Decorare con le perline lo stelo e le punte di ogni foglia. Cucire le parti laterali del rettangolo doppiato e inserire la lampo lungo l’apertura. Con la fodera, confezionare un sacchettino, fissandolo all’interno della pochette con un sottopunto. Applicare in un angolo la farfallina.

NOTE:

CAMBIAMENTO DI COLORE:
Quando si deve cambiare colore in un lavoro a p. coste, lav. il primo ferro con il nuovo colore tutto a dir. sul dir. del lavoro, per evitare che si vedano dei nodini di colore contrastante.

LAVORAZIONE A ZONE DI COLORE:
Se alcune righe colorate sono formate da un numero di ferri dispari, lavorare con i ferri a due punti, per non dover spezzare il filo ad ogni cambio di colore. Per rendere più regolare la m., prima di stirare il capo avvolgerlo in un panno umido e lasciarlo così per qualche ora (o per una notte).

www.compagniadelcashmere.com



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Fibre naturali, artificiali e sintetiche

Prima ancora di costruire le sue prime città, i suoi primi castelli, l’uomo si fece dei tessuti per coprirsi. E continuò a fabbricarli per migliaia di anni usando come materia prima fibre di origine vegetale o animale.
Nelle piante le fibre formano l’ossatura che sostiene le parti morbide e polpose delle foglie, delle radici e degli steli. Negli animali le fibre si trovano invece nella carne, nella pelle, nei muscoli e nel pelo. Tutte queste fibre sono estremamente sottili (la loro lunghezza è infatti circa duemila volte il loro spessore) e sono costituite da una lunga catena di molecole grosso modo parallele l’una all’altra. Le fibre vegetali, come il cotone e il lino, sono di cellulosa, che è un composto di carbonio, idrogeno e ossigeno; le fibre animali, come la lana e la seta, sono costituite da vari tipi di proteine, composti di carbonio, idrogeno, ossigeno, azoto e talvolta anche zolfo (nella lana).

Per soddisfare le esigenze degli attuali metodi di manifattura e dei macchinari moderni, le fibre devono essere forti, resistenti, flessibili, lucenti e di dimensioni pressoché uniformi. Dovrebbero essere lunghe almeno mm 12 (meglio ancora mm 35 o piú) e spesse appena qualche centimillimetro. Inoltre dovrebbero essere ruvide o grinzose, in modo da intrecciarsi saldamente quando vengono attorcigliate per formare un filato, cosí da aumentare la resistenza delle fibre ed evitare che scorrano l’una sull’altra se sottoposte a tensione.

Soltanto alcune delle fibre naturali sono provviste di tutti o della maggior parte di questi requisiti; tra queste sono il cotone, particolarmente forte e resistente, la lana, calda e ingualcibile, la seta, morbida e lucente, e il lino, crespo e lucido. Le fibre corticali, che eomprem dono iuta, canapa, sisal e ramia sono forti e resistenti, ma troppo rozze per farne vestiti: si usano soprattutto per corde, spaghi, sacchi e stuoie.

Dal momento che le possibilità delle fibre naturali sono limitate, l’industria tessile sfrutta in pieno le fibre artificiali che sono state prodotte negli ultimi 75 anni. Tra il 1890 e il 1920 i chimici hanno scoperto come ricavare numerose varietà di fibre dalla polpa del cotone e del legno. Quelle che hanno avuto pili successo sono state il rayon di viscosa e il rayon all’acetato di cellulosa, che tuttora si fabbricano su vasta scala. In un primo tempo le fibre di rayon furono chiamate seta artificiale per la loro serica morbidezza e per la loro grande lucentezza.

Come tutte le fibre naturali, il rayon assorbe acqua e s’inspessisce quando viene lavato, ma c’è una Bifforema: le fibre naturali rimangono forti quando si bagnano e si gonfiano, il cotone anzi diventa più forte; il rayon, invece, quando assorbe una quantità di acqua pari al suo peso, perde circa un terzo della sua resistenza. Questo indebolimento è solo temporaneo, perché una volta asciutto il rayon riacquista tutte le sue proprietà originarie. È evidente, tuttavia, che la qualità di una fibra è migliore se essa non perde la sua forza quando viene lavata.

La scoperta del nylon da parte di Carothers fu particolarmente importante perché il nylon, che è la prima delle cosiddette fibre sintetiche, è almeno due volte piú forte del cotone, assorbe una minima quantità di acqua e mantiene intatta la sua forma anche quando è bagnato. Il successo del nylon portò alla scoperta di altre fibre sintetiche con proprietà analoghe.

Nessuna fibra presenta tutti i vantaggi o tutti gli svantaggi di cui abbiamo parlato. Le fibre naturali e le prime fibre di rayon resistono al calore e a quei solventi organici che si usano a volte nella pulitura a secco. D’altra parte esse vengono attaccate dalle tarme e dai batteri. Le nuove fibre sintetiche, invece, non vengono attaccate da insetti e batteri, ma si rovinano se stirate con ferro molto caldo.

Poiché il rayon e le fibre naturali assorbono rapidamente acqua sono particolarmente indicate per capi di vestiario che piú facilmente vengono in contatto col sudore. Per la stessa ragione si possono tingere e apprettare con sostanze solubili nell’acqua. Invece i tessuti di fibre sintetiche respingono l’acqua e si devono pertanto tingere e apprettare mediante processi piú complessi e costosi. Anche per essere filate e tessute le fibre sintetiche richiedono particolari procedimenti.

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